Vegetables are categorized into either cool or warm season crops. Cool season crops, such as broccoli, cabbage, beets and carrots, can germinate at minimum soil temperatures of 40 degrees. Warm season crops, such as beans, tomatoes, peppers and squash can germinate at minimum soil temperatures of 55 - 60 degrees Ripe tomatoes need to be placed in an area with temperatures between 55 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Storing the fruit at temperatures below 55 degrees causes the fruit to lose flavor and develop a.. Native to the subtropical regions of Central and South America, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) have very specific growing requirements. They need full sun, rich soil and warm temperatures. The.. Choose the right variety. Heat-tolerant tomato varieties like Heatmaster, Solar Fire, Summer Set, and Phoenix can form fruit even as temperatures climb. (Check the product reviews of these varieties to see what other gardeners think.) These tomatoes are often described as heat set types, or have heat-related words or locations in their names
A tomato plant which experiences temperatures below 15.5 ° C (60 ° F) for extended periods of time will begin to flower profusely. These flowers may remain open on the plant for several weeks, without fruit being formed . Successfully growing tomato plants at high temperature and scorching. The Ideal Soil Temperature for Tomatoes The ideal soil temperature for planting tomatoes is 60 degrees Fahrenheit or 16 degrees Celsius. A soil thermometer can help you decide when to plant tomatoes Cool and frost free greenhouses: Night Temperature: between 5-7 degrees C (40-45 degrees F) is the prime temperature for growing frost sensitive plants, or your propagated cuttings. Warm greenhouse: Night Temperature: 13 degrees C (55 degrees F).Grow lights may also be needed to supplement light for plants grown at this temperature and from a.
Yet the ideal temperature for germination of tomatoes is 29 deg C In practice you would most likely germinate your tomatoes with a soil temperature between 20 deg C and 25 deg C which is fairly easy to achieve in a heated propagator The best daytime growing temperature for greenhouse tomatoes is 29.4 degrees Celsius (85 degrees Fahrenheit), because it facilitates the plant growing and fruiting properly The first trick to knowing how to grow tomatoes is understanding the room or garden conditions they thrive in. Depending on the stage of growth, tomato plants fancy varied temperatures: Germination : Tomato seeds germinate best at constant soil temperatures of around 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-27 degrees Celsius)
These very tender plants include cantaloupe, eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes. These plants thrive in very warm temperatures and plenty of sunlight. There's the best temperature for germination and then another best temperature for growing. This chart gives you an idea of the best temperatures for tender plants The typical (optimal) temperature for tomato seed germination is between 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18.3 degrees Celsius) and 85 degrees Fahrenheit (29.4 degrees Celsius), according to the University of Maine. Remember that these temperatures refer to soil temperature, not air temperature tomatoes image by Horticulture from Fotolia.com Tomato plants tolerate temperatures that are less than 55 degrees and over 100 degrees Fahrenheit, but after a few days of extreme to low or high temperatures, the plant will experience blossom drop. Tomatoes thrive when grown in temperatures that range between 70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit optimum temperature range °for tomatoes is 65° to 85F (see previous chart). Within that range, it takes approximately 6 to 8 days before seeds germinate. Tomato seeds may still germinate at 50°F, but it will take over 40 days, and there will probably °be no germination if the soil temperature is 104F
The ideal (optimal) temperature for tomato seed germination is between 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18.3 degrees Celsius) and 85 degrees Fahrenheit (29.4 degrees Celsius). Keep in mind that these temperatures refer to soil temperature, not air temperature. If you want to find out the soil temperature, use a probe-type thermometer to check . X Research source Preheat the oven to that temperature first. Meanwhile, prepare two baking sheets by lining them with nonstick aluminum foil or parchment paper Best Temperature to Set Your Refrigerator. To keep refrigerated food safe, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends an interior fridge temperature of no higher than 40 degrees F, while Energy.gov says 35 F to 38 F is best.. If you have a newer fridge with an adjustable digital temperature control, choose the temperature that's best for the amount of food you typically have on hand Research has shown that blossom drop in tomato can be influ-enced both by the environment (and related stress) as well as by plant nutrition. When daytime temperatures exceed 85 degrees F or nighttime temperatures exceed 70 degrees F, pollination suffers due to pollen becoming tacky and non-viable Seed will germinate at temperatures between the minimum soil temperature and the optimum soil temperatures, but the number of days to germination will be greater. Use this chart to determine if the soil temperature in the garden is right for seed starting the crop you want to plant
We suggest providing light of about 16 hours for the best fruit yields. The optimal temperatures for tomatoes are within the range of 18 to 25 degrees Celsius during the daytime. For the night, anywhere between 12 to 18 degrees would suffice. Take note that any temperature beyond 90 degrees and below 50 degrees can harm the plants immediately Growing in a greenhouse is really the art of manipulating plants, and temperature is one tool to help with this, so the ideal temperature depends on what you want to do with the plants. (It also changes over the season and a good grower will be tw..
Tomatoes should be stored on the counter, as should melon. Both will get sweeter and more flavorful as they ripen. How to keep your fridge at a safe temperature The best way to experiment is to start in the 350-400° F (177-204° C) range and then work your way up or down by 5-10° (or 1° C) at a time. Play around a bit and eventually you will find the temp that is just right for you. If your herb is too moist, most of the heat will be wasted on drying out your buds As McGee mentioned, ripe tomatoes are best stored around 55°F. At that temperature, ripe tomatoes will be held in stasis, neither ripening or becoming damaged by cold Tomatoes perform best when the day temperature ranges from 18.3 to 29.4 degrees Celsius and lower down to 23.9 degrees Celsius at night. Extreme high temperatures can detain flowering and fruit set on tomato. Detained flowering and fruits refer to plants that lack sufficient energy to bear fruit as large as we would like It takes six to eight weeks from the time of pollination until tomato fruit reach full maturity. The length of time depends on the variety grown and of course, the weather conditions. The optimum temperature for ripening tomatoes is 70 to 75F. When temperatures exceed 85 to 90 F, the ripening process slows significantly or even stops
According to this report from the Department of Plant Sciences at UC Davis, firm, ripe tomatoes are best held at anywhere from 44 to 50°F (7 to 10°C), which is higher than fridge temperature but lower than most rooms. (The report says to store less ripe tomatoes at higher temperatures, which supports my above observation that riper tomatoes. I want to know which crops or vegetables will withstand 40 degrees Celsius (103 degrees Fahrenheit)? vegetables optimal-conditions temperature food-crops. Share. Improve this question. Follow edited Mar 10 '17 at 16:33. Which tomatoes grow the best in high temperatures For plant's growth and development, a temperature of 18-25 degrees Celsius (64-77 degrees Fahrenheit) during the day and around 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) during the night is needed. The flowering and growth stops at temperatures less than 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit)
At temperatures between 28 and 32 degrees Celsius, their activity level gradually drops. At higher temperatures, the bumblebees stop flying. From the moment, the bumblebees will occupy themselves with cooling the hive until the temperature drops below 32 degrees Celsius again They require certain temperature ranges to set fruit. Night time, when the fruit is set, must be between 62 - 70 degrees F. Normally night temps fall into this range frequently and tomato blooms set fruit. But last summer, in June, night temperatures rose above 70 F and stayed there until August 10th No matter where a person chooses to grow his tomatoes, he will need a way to keep them warm. Temperatures of at least 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18.33 degrees Celsius) but not more than 85 degrees Fahrenheit (29.44 degrees Celsius) are usually recommended
Best temperature for taste- 203 degrees Fahrenheit/95 degrees Celsius. Poultry Temperatures: From Chicken to Turkey. Chicken and Turkey Breasts- USDA recommended minimum temperature- 165 degrees Fahrenheit/ 74 degrees Celsius. Best temperature for taste-150 degrees Fahrenheit if held at that temperature for 5 minute Temperature Unit Conversion Formulas . There's no complicated math required to convert one temperature unit to another. Simple addition and subtraction will get you through conversions between the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales. Fahrenheit involves a bit of multiplication, but it's nothing you can't handle . They grow best under conditions of high light and warm temperatures. Greenhouses work best for the tomatoes as they regulate the lighting and temperature. Therefore the optional temperature for tomatoes at the greenhouse should be at 15 to 30 degrees Celsius and not beyond 35 degree Celsius
Germination temperature: 40 F - Do not plant seed potatoes until soil reaches 40 F. Days to emergence: 14 to 28 - Sprouts from seed potatoes should emerge in 2 to 4 weeks depending on soil temperature. Maintenance and care: Potatoes perform best in areas where summers are cool (65 F to 70 F), but are widely adapted It forms threads that infect plants through the root hairs. The best conditions for verticillium to thrive are those of early spring: cool and wet. Moist soil at a temperature around 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 Celsius) is ideal for the fungus to start infecting roots. Signs of Verticillium Wilt on Tomatoes The key to getting the highest seed germination rate is to match the correct soil temperature to the vegetable seed of choice. Below is a listing of correct soil temperatures needed for vegetable seed germination. MINIMUM Soil Temperature for Germination in Degrees Fahrenheit. 32 - Endive, Lettuce, Onion, Parsnip, and Spinac The best room temperature for sleep is between 15 and 19 degrees Celsius for adults. If you find yourself struggling to sleep at night - either with beads of sweat or the shivers running through your body - you may be sleeping in the wrong temperature range Time temperature abuse is the act of allowing foods to stay in the temperature danger zone of 41 to 135 degrees Fahrenheit. Along with cross-contamination, time temperature abuse is a common source of foodborne illness. Foods may become time-temperature abused in three ways: Foods are not held or stored at food safe temperatures
However, sleep experts believe that cooler temperatures work better than warmer temperatures since they assist with your body's core temperature drop. Experts claim the best temperature for sleeping in Celsius is 25 degrees for sleeping at night. We recommend using your air conditioner's thermostat to set your room to this temperature Plum or Roma tomatoes work best for oven-drying because, despite their reputation for being bland, these tomatoes are sturdy and uniform in size. They hold up well for hours of long, slow cooking. One trick for making these oven-dried tomatoes even more flavorful is quite simple: Dry the tomatoes cut-side up Plant your tomatoes about 45cm (18in) apart, leaving 75cm (30in) between rows, and if you're planting into a grow bag, limit yourself to two plants per bag. Tomatoes prefer a temperature of 21 - 24C (70 - 75F) and will perform poorly at temperatures above 27C (81F) or below 16C (61F) In a standard, well ventilated grow room the optimal temperature tends to be between 24-29 °C (75-85 degrees Fahrenheit). There are other factors that can warrant higher temperatures Temperatures in Celsius can be expressed as a number of degrees followed by the symbols ℃, or simply C. The Celsius scale has 100 degrees between water boiling and freezing, while Fahrenheit has.
Internal head temperature should be lowered to 34 to 38°F for best shipping and holding conditions. Head lettuce can be held for 2 to 3 weeks at 32°F and 95% relative humidity. Leaf and butterhead types can be kept for 1 to 2 weeks in cold storage In simple terms, the perfect temperature is between 390 and 490 degrees Fahrenheit or 199 and 255 degrees Celsius. Once you are in that range, the key is finding what temperature is best for your taste. If the temperature is too high, you will get a rich flavor, but the vapor will be so hot that it might cause discomfort The best sleeping temperature for most adults is 60 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 to 22 degrees Celsius). The ideal temperature for elderly people is around 66 to 70°F (19-21°C). It is also vital to = keep the living room and bedroom temperature consistent with each other. The perfect temperature for baby's room should be slightly cooler.
6. Monitor the Temperature. Tomatoes flourish at temperatures of between 18 to 25 degrees Celsius during the day. At night, they like cooler temperatures of between 12 and 18 degrees. You can regulate the air temperature of your hydroponic garden with thermostats and fans. 7. Behave Like a Be . This dish is a lathero and it is enjoyed best at room temperature with feta. I don't eat it with bread, as there is the rice and potatoes, but most Greeks do. Preheat oven at 400 Fahrenheit (200 Celsius)
In this math tutorial we look at the trick for quickly converting between the two main temperature scales - Celsius and Fahrenheit. This method will allow y.. Typically, room temperature is set between 20-21 degree Celsius whereas, as per standard comfort conditions, ideal temperature is 24-25 degree Celsius. Considering change from 20degree Celsius to 24 degree Celsius, there is potential to increase at least 4 degrees Celsius, which will lead to savings of about 24 per cent of electricity 20.5k members in the CrestedGecko community. Subreddit dedicated to Crested Geckos - discussions, pictures, questions, videos, art, and more! We The ideal temperature for germinating tomatoes is 70-80°F (21-27°C) If your indoor temperature below 64°F I will strongly recommend using a heat mat to heat the seedling trays from the bottom, It will greatly improve the germination speed of your tomato seeds
Light & temperature To germinate, tomato seeds need a temperature of around 64-69°F (18-21°C). A little lower or a bit higher is fine but below 50°F (10°C) and above 90°F (32°C) and they won't do well. Because many of us start tomato seeds between January and March, it can be difficult to give those kinds of consistent temperatures Cut tomatoes may be held un-refrigerated for up to 6 hours if the tomatoes are 41°F or less when removed from temperature control, the temperature of the tomatoes is monitored and never rises above.. From Siberia. Selected by Organic Garden Magazine as one of the 10 best early-producing tomatoes in the world. Siberia Tomato Heirloom, determinate, 50 days, bright red, small-fruited (up to 5 ounces) Excellent cool weather variety that can set fruit at low temperatures. Tomato lore has it that Siberia was smuggled out of Russia in 1975
Good air circulation is also important for preventing mold. Cooler temperatures, from 50-60ºF (10-18ºC), will cause tomatoes to ripen more slowly. Higher temperatures, from 60-65ºF (15-18ºC), will cause more rapid ripening. Make sure that the tomatoes don't reach a temperature under 50ºF, or they may go soft and never turn red The favorable range to grow tomatoes is between 70 and 79 degrees Fahrenheit (21 - 26 °C) with full exposure of sunlight. The night temperatures of 13-18 °C (58-65 degrees Fahrenheit) encourage the fruit set. The plants stop growing below 8-10 °C and the temperatures above 32 °C (90 degrees) cause floral abortion and poor fruit setting If you have issues with germinating your tomato seed, temperature may be the problem. Ideal temperatures for germination are 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures much lower than 70 degrees will cause slower germination, and if temperatures dip far below, germination may not occur at all Commodity Temperature Celsius Fahrenheit Eggs (with shell) -1 to +3 30.2 to 37.4 Eggs (dried, whole solids) +4 to +10 39.2 to 50 Fish (frozen) -18 or colder -0.4 or colder Honey (strained) +10 to +20 50 to 68 Ice cream (frozen diary) -26 or colder -14.8 or colder IQF (individually quick frozen products) -18 or colder -0.4 or colde
Gaming graphic cards are more productive, and they are able to work stably for several hours at a temperature up to 70-75 degrees Celsius. For most office graphics cards, 65 degrees Celsius is considered to be a permissible maximum. HDD. The average operating temperature of the hard drive is about 30-40 degrees Celsius Source: NIST.gov *The point at which the two temperature units are equivalent (-40 °C = -40 °F). As you can see from this chart, Fahrenheit temperatures are typically a lot higher than their equivalent Celsius temperatures are. Also, notice how the difference between Celsius and Fahrenheit starts to get smaller the lower you go in temperature—until, that is, they're the exact same The best way to plant your tomato is to bury it right up to the first few inches of the plant. Over the next few days your plant will sprout hundreds of tiny roots all along its stem. When it comes to the middle of summer your tomato plant will have its roots so deep in the soil that you might not even need to water it 1. Extreme Temperatures. Tomato plants love the sun and prefer temperatures above 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius). If you plant your crop too late in the season there are chances that the temperature of the soil drops below this temperature while your plants are fruiting
It is not easy to grow tomatoes in high temperatures, such as 45C degrees. But if the night temperature during the rest of the year is 17-20, it is very good because pollen production is connected with the night temperatures, which must never be higher (for sequent of 3 nights) than 24C Vaporization temperatures greatly effect the quality of your vapor by releasing different amounts, and types, of compounds released at different temperatures. For example, at a lower temperature, approximately 190-210 degrees Celsius, you will receive thin & wispy, yet very flavorful vapor Researchers found that chilling tomatoes at temperatures below 12 degrees Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit, hampers the enzymes in the fruit Every botanical's combustion point is slightly different due to moisture content, but in general, combustion occurs at 235 degrees Celsius. Combustion burns and releases, along with the essential oils, harmful by products such as tar and carbon monoxide through smoke Tomatoes grow and produce best when daytime temperatures range from 70 to 80 degrees, and night temperatures fall between 60 to 70 degrees. Most of our summer days exceed these spring like temperatures, which can cause tomato plants to shed their blossoms without setting fruit. Fruits that do ripen when daytime temperatures reach into the mid.
Store the tomatoes in a dark, cool (55-60 degree F) location, such as a basement or cellar. Inspect the tomatoes periodically during storage. Discard any soft or decaying fruit. When the tomatoes begin to color, remove the newspaper and place them at room temperature If you are searching for temperature settings and time that can work with different materials and design, then the multipurpose settings are fine. The temperature should be 176 degrees Celsius or 350 degrees Fahrenheit Heat press time should be 10-12 minutes lon
The best temperature for germination is between 21 and 24 degrees Celsius. Germination will occur at much lower temperatures, but it is considerably slower. Higher temperatures increase the proportion of `rogue' or `Jack' plants produced by most varieties The best temperature for newborn babies is around 18-20 degrees Celsius. Provided you dress your baby up in a onesie, or place them in a sleeping bag. If you dress your baby up in just diapers and a singlet, then the ideal temperature would be around 23-24 degrees Celsius Use a heating mat to give your tomato seeds the right temperature to thrive on. For your San Marzano seeds, it's optimal to have a temperature of at least 27 degrees celsius. So if your room temperature is colder than this, bring it down using a heating mat. To use this, just expose the mat for at least 6 hours in direct sunlight How does the flavor change when ripe, picked tomatoes go through a commercial post-harvest chain and are then stored either in the refrigerator (7 degrees Celsius) or at room temperature (20 degrees Celsius)?. Researchers from the Division of Quality of Plant Products at the University of Göttingen analyzed flavor-related attributes in new tomato strains drawing on the expertise of a. Carrot. Planting: Carrots (Daucus carota) are cool-season plants that grow best at average temperatures between 60 and 65 °F.The optimum soil temperature for seed germination is 55 to 75 °F. Seeds will not germinate above 95 °F. It is important to plant carrots early enough in the spring to ensure that the crop is harvested before early summer
Tomatoes need warm temperatures but not too warm. The plant cannot stand temperatures of 95 degrees F (x degrees Celsius) and this heat will no doubt cause the plant to wither and die. Keep a thermometer close to your plants and ensure that they stay at a temperature of around 20 degrees Celsius during the day I've found the Husky Cherry Red and the Amish Paste Tomato best for roasting. I cut the cherry tomatoes in half, place cut side up in a greased sheet pan and drizzle olive oil, sprinkle salt and a couple pinches of sugar over the top. Roast at 400 degrees for about 45 minutes (eyeball it), stir a couple times during cooking With a unique blend of essential energy and key vitamins, Celsius energy drink is your partner to an active lifestyle. These energy drinks are clinically proven to function and also contain no sugar, aspartame, artificial flavors, colors or preservatives
Venus is an exception because its dense atmosphere acts as a greenhouse and heats the surface to above the melting point of lead, about 880 degrees Fahrenheit (471 degrees Celsius). Mercury rotates slowly and has a thin atmosphere, and consequently, the night-side temperature can be more than 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit lower than the day-side. Stupid question! Use these tips to grow your own tomatoes bursting with flavour. Tomatoes are the most popular home garden vegetable grown for good reason. They are easy to grow and will tolerate a wide variety of soil types. They are also incredibly versatile. The methods described here will suit most tomato varieties. And what a variety These include tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, squash, cucumbers, and melons. I find this particular mat to be well-made and durable. It only uses 45 watts of power to warm the root area 10 to 20 degrees over the ambient temperature On the Celsius scale, that would convert to -28.8°C to 43.3°C, or a 72.1-degree range of temperatures. Fahrenheit gives you almost double—1.8x—the precision* of Celsius without having to delve into decimals, allowing you to better relate to the air temperature
The Best Ways to Cook Cheap Steaks. Extra-rare or bleu. To make a steak bleu, or extra-rare, you only have to bring it to a temperature of 80 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, or 26 to 38 degrees Celsius. Rare. Rare steaks will measure out to have a temperature of 120 to 125 degrees Fahrenheit, or 49 to 51 degrees Celsius. Medium-rar Although there is some information circulating regarding that the safe temperatures before thermal throttling on the RX 6000 Series are around 110 Celsius. Nvidia's optimal range is between 70 and 85 degrees Celsius (~158-185 Fahrenheit), while AMD's are at their best at around 60 to 70 Celsius (~140-158 Fahrenheit) Best Temperature to Set Your Home in Summer. For air-conditioned homes, the optimal temperature for energy savings and personal comfort is 25 C. Keeping the house higher than 26 degrees, says Jason Gassman of Bell Brothers Heating and A/C, Inc., will make it humid and force your A/C system to work harder.Settings lower than 22 C can overwork your air conditioning system and cause it to freeze up If you want a more precise calculation, you can use the more exact formula. Using this calculation, we determine that 100 degrees Fahrenheit is equivalent to 37.78 degrees Celsius. (F - 32) / 1.8 = C. In other words, if you'd like to convert a temperature reading in Fahrenheit to Celsius: Start with the temperature in Fahrenheit (e.g., 100.
A review of the evidence found the ideal temperature for 'typical' office work - calls to customers, processing text documents, etc. - is 22°C (71.6F). But before you go blaming your last. Because bacteria naturally exists in all raw meat, taking its temperature is the only way to make sure your meat has been cooked enough to eliminate potentially harmful bacteria that could cause food poisoning.Using food thermometers while cooking could prevent many of the 48 million cases of foodborne illness each year. So congrats! You've made it this far, which means that you're planning to. Initial temperature advice could range from around 340 degrees Celsius or 650 degrees Fahrenheit, and up to approximately 480 degrees Celsius or 900 degrees Fahrenheit. With this variation in temperature comes a variation in cooking time
For some high-temperature applications, ceramic magnets, also called hard ferrite magnets, offer great value and performance. They have a maximum operating temperature of approximately 250 degrees Celsius or higher and a Curie temperature of about 450 degrees Celsius. These magnets, however, are not recommended for use in cryogenic applications The best time of year to visit Istanbul in Turkey. Istanbul can best be visited in spring (May and June) or autumn (September and October) with temperatures between 22 and 30 degrees Celsius (76 & 86° Fahrenheit). During summer it tends to be to hot to visit the city with average temperatures between 30 and 35 degrees Celsius (86 & 95.
Babies - the best sleeping temperature for baby's room should be cooler, around 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit (18 to 21 degrees Celsius). Adults - the best sleeping temperature for adults is 60 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (15 to 22 degrees Celsius). Elderly - the best sleeping temperature for elderly people is around 66 to 70°F (19-21°C) Surface temperature of a browning crust. 200° F (100° C) Interior temperature of a loaf of just-baked bread. 130° F-140° F (55° C-60° C) Yeast cells die (thermal death point). 120° F-130° F (49° C-55° C) Water temperature for activating yeast designed to be mixed with the dry ingredients in a recipe Therefore, some offices set temperature below 22.8 degree Celsius. Appropriate temperature is also essential to prevent computers and servers from overheating. But, if the temperature is too low, it can shorten the lifespan of the aircon. Best Temperature for Air-con The temperature in Singapore is hot most of the time The majority of smart phones couldn't handle temperatures colder than -15 or -20 degrees Celsius / 5 F to -4 F. Even if they managed to stay on, most died when put to actual use. Feature phones did better. Apart from slowness in the display, they showed no symptoms until the temperature dropped to -25 C / -13 F Normal ale fermentation temperatures range from 68 to 72 °F (20 to 22 °C) and lager fermentation temperatures from 45 to 55 °F (7 to 13 °C). Also keep in mind that the heat generated by an active fermentation can warm a typical 5-gallon (19-L) batch of beer by 10 to 15 degrees Fahrenheit (5.5 to 8.3 degrees Celsius)