Cyclonic rainfall, also known as frontal rain, is caused when two air masses of different temperatures meet. Warm air and cool air don´t mix, as they have different densities. As the warm air rises over the heavier cool air, it cools and creates a front; clouds form and produce rain ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Frontal/ Cyclonic/Convergence Rainfall This is also know as frontal or cyclonic or depression rainfall. Cyclonic rainfall occurs in the temperate latitudes and is closely associated with winds called the Westerlies. It also occurs in the tropical latitudes in the form of tropical cyclones . It is formed when two masses of air of different temperature, humidity and density meets. For example meeting of moisture laden warm tropical wind with a polar air mass. A layer separating air masses is called the front Cyclonic Rainfall is convectional rainfall on a large scale. (we will see this in detail later) The precipitation in a tropical cyclone is of convectional type while that in a temperate cyclone is because of frontal activity
Frontal or Cyclonic Rainfall ADVECTION FOG: Occurs when moist air passes over a cool surface via wind and is cooled. It is most common at sea when the tropical air collides with the cooler waters. RADIATION FOG: Occurs as a ground fog. It is caused be the radiation cooling of the Earth's surface, and often only occurs at night time . Frontal precipitation typically falls out of nimbostratus clouds Cyclonic or Frontal rain: This type of rainfall occurs when warm and cold air meets each other. Since warm air is lighter, it rises above the cold air
Cyclonic precipitation results from the lifting of air converging into a low-pressure area or cyclone. Cyclonic precipitation can be frontal or non-frontal. Frontal precipitation results from the lifting of warm air on one side over a colder denser air on the other side The United Kingdom experiences a lot of frontal rainfall, as it is associated with the movement of depressions over the country
Cyclonic activity causes cyclonic rain and it occurs along the fronts of the cyclone. When two masses of air of unlike density, temperature, and humidity meet then it is formed. The layer that separates them is known as the front. A warm front and the cold front are the two parts of the front . The frontal rain fall is associated with cold and warm fronts. This type of rainfall is caused when warm and cold air masses move against each other
Frontal or cyclonic precipitation This type of precipitation is associated with fronts, temperate cyclones and tropical cyclones. The frontal precipitation occurs when two air masses interact with each other. The warm air being lighter moves up, which causes condensation and cloud formation The precipitation that results is called non-frontal cyclonic precipitation. If one air mass passes over another air mass, the precipitation is frontal cyclonic precipitation. The air rushes horizontally into the low pressure area changing into whirling mass because of rotary motion of the earth about its own axis. This cyclone is very large. 1) Convectional Rainfall. 2) Relief / Orographic Rainfall. 3) Frontal / Cyclonic Rainfall. Convectional Rainfall. This type of rainfall occurs mostly in the tropics, through a series of evaporation and condensation processes. As heat from the sun raises the temperature of the ground surface, heat released from the surface warms up the layer of. Cyclonic / Frontal Rainfall. Frontal rainfall occurs due to the upward movement of the air caused by the convergence of different air masses with different temperatures. The warm air rises over the cold air and cyclonic rain occurs. The cold air pushes up the warm air and sky gets clear again
Detailed diagram explaining how rainfall is caused when two contrasting air masses collide. This is the most common type of rainfall for the British Isles. T.. The cyclonic precipitation is caused by the movement of moist air mass to this region due to the difference in pressure. Cyclones can be of two types frontal and non-frontal precipitation. Frontal Precipitation. A frontal is called as the hot moist air mass boundary. This precipitation is caused by the expansion of air near the frontal surface Cyclonic or 'frontal' rain occurs where two air masses meet and form a 'front'. The warmer, moisture laden air rises over the colder air as a 'warm front'. As. the air rises it cools, and its relative humidity increases. Clouds form as water vapour condenses, and then fall as rain. Explanation: please mark as brainlist
. o The nearly symmetric wind and precipitation distribution around the circulation center of the tropical cyclone evolve to a broad asymmetric distribution over a larger area Cyclonic precipitation is caused by lifting of an air mass due to the pressure difference. Cyclonic precipitation may be either frontal or non-frontal cyclonic precipitation. 1. Frontal precipitation: It results from the lifting of warm and moist air on one side of a frontal surface over colder, denser air on the other side
Convectinoal rainfall is in the form of showers with rapidly changing intensity. This type of rainfall happens for a short duration because horizonatl expanse of a cumulonimbus cloud is small. Cyclonic Rainfall or Stratiform Rainfall. This type of rainfall is formed by frontal system surrounding extratropical cyclones Cyclonic rainfall also known as frontal rainfall, has the following features: 1. It occurs where and when two masses of different characteristics meet. When warm maritime air mass, which is lighter, meets the cold maritime air, which is cold and heavier, the warm air mass undercuts the cold air mass. The cold air mass is forced to rise since it. Frontal or Cyclonic Rain. Frontal Rain is caused by cyclonic activity and it occurs along the fronts of the cyclone. It is formed when two masses of air of different temperature, humidity and density meets. For example meeting of moisture laden warm tropical wind with a polar air mass Cyclonic Precipitation or Rainfall: ADVERTISEMENTS: This type can be sub-divided into: (a) Frontal and (b) Non-frontal precipitation. This type of rainfall occurs from lifting of air which converges into a low pressure area or cyclone. This type of rainfall generally occurs in plain regions
Air around a frontal system converges at the surface and is forced to rise. This rising air cools and eventually condenses to form clouds and precipitation. The basic structure of a front can be seen in Figure 4 of the previous lecture. The various symbols for each type of front can be seen to the right in Figure 1 Frontal Activity. Frontal precipitation occurs as a consequence of slow ascent of air in synoptic systems (on the order of cm/s), such as over surface cold fronts, and over and ahead of warm fronts. Cyclonic Precipitation. The cyclonic precipitation generally refers to the precipitation that occurs by the cyclonic movement or action of the. area of precipitation, which area has experienced a frontal passage or cyclonic activity during the same time interval, all precipitation at the station is herein classified frontal. TABLE 1 Amount and type of precipitation June 1 to September 30 FRONTAL PRECIPITATION Cleveland Columbus Cincinnati Average % of Average Total OTHER PRECIPITATION. Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation. 1. Orographic Precipitation: ADVERTISEMENTS: This type of precipitation occurs when the moist air mass rises on the windward side of the mountain. The moist air mass is lighter than the dry air mass, therefore, buoyancy forces push the air mass along the slope of the mountain and cools at the dry adiabatic rate
On the right hand side is a Northern Hemisphere frontal cyclone with a warm and cold front. The cold air behind the cold front at the surface also extends upward aloft. Recall that the layer between two pressure surfaces is thinner when the air temperature of the layer is cold (more dense), and thicker when the layer is warm (less dense) Cyclones and Fronts the development of freezing rain In most cases, freezing rain results from the process of warm moist air overrunning colder air. Perhaps the most common overrunning scenario occurs as warm moist air flows up and over a warm front associated with a midlatitude cyclone.The rising air cools, the water vapor condenses, producing a narrow band of freezing rain ahead of the front Cyclonic or Frontal (Depressions) •Air that rises because there is a cooler, denser air mass flowing beneath it that forces it upwards causes cyclonic (frontal) rain. Uh, what are fronts
Precipitation Rain is the most common form of Precipitation. (Other forms are snow, hail, sleet etc) There are three main types of rainfall. Relief Rain Convectional Rain Cyclonic (Frontal) Rain Relief Rain Relief rain occurs when moisture laden air is forced to rise over high ground. As the air rises it cools and the wate The rainiest places in the world are places that have relief rainfall. Frontal rain/Cyclonic rain. Diagram of a cold front causing rain. Frontal rain happens when cooler air and warmer, humid air meet in a weather front. The less dense warm air rises and condenses forming clouds. These clouds grow and eventually create rain .3.1 Cyclonic Precipitation: It is caused by lifting associated with the horizontal convergence of inflowing atmosphere into an area of low pressure. There are two kinds of cyclonic precipitation. Non-frontal precipitation involves only this convergence and lifting. Frontal precipitation results when one air mass is lifted over another Cyclonic Precipitation (Frontal/Non frontal ) Frontal precipitation results when the leading edge( front) of a warm air mass meets a cool air mass. The warmer air mass is forced up over the cool air. As it rises the warm air cools, moisture in the air condenses, clouds and precipitation result. 19
Frontal (or Cyclonic) Rain is caused by cyclonic activity and it occurs along the fronts of the cyclone. It is formed when two masses of air of different temperature, humidity and density meets. Join The Discussion. Comment * Related Questions on Atmosphere Frontal cyclone definition, any extratropical cyclone associated with a weather front: the most common cyclonic storm. See more
within a cyclonic rainfall warm and cold air from different directions often meet where they meet a zone of separation called front is formed. warm air which is lighter rises obliquely over the cold air. as it rises it condenses and rains. frontal or cyclonic rainfall is very common in the sub-polar low pressure belts. here cyclones occur when the warm westerlies are forced to rise over the. Faceboo Convectional rainfall is very common in areas where the ground is heated by the hot sun, such as the Tropics. Stage 1. The sun heats the ground and warm air rises. Stage 2 As the air rises it cools and water vapour condenses to form clouds
Frontal/Cyclonic rain is caused by cyclonic activity and occurs along fronts. It is formed when two air masses of different temperature, humidity and density meet such as the meeting of a tropical maritime air mass and a polar air mass. A zone called a front separates them. At the warm front, the lighter warm air rises gently over the heavier. The cyclonic circulation leads to a well-developed extra tropical cyclone, with a warm front and a cold front. There are pockets of warm air or warm sector wedged between the forward and the rear cold air or cold sector. The warm air glides over the cold air and a sequence of clouds appear over the sky ahead of the warm front and cause. Frontal / Cyclonic Rain. Frontal/Cyclonic rain is caused by cyclonic activity and occurs along fronts. It is formed when two air masses of different temperature, humidity and density meet such as the meeting of a tropical maritime air mass and a polar air mass. A zone called a front separates them Frontal rainfall. Frontal rainfall occurs when a region experiences a severe precipitation deficit on a sufficient scale, with sufficient duration. Strong cyclonic circulation systems result in large-scale low-pressure regions of similar size, and therefore can be found on all continents in the Northern hemisphere, and on some in the. Cyclonic Precipitation. Article Id: WHEBN0009069609 Reproduction Date: Title: Cyclonic Precipitation : Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia: Language: English: Subject: Stratiform rainfall is also caused by frontal systems surrounding extratropical cyclones or lows,.
In this article, You will read Temperate Cyclone (Mid Latitude Cyclone or Extratropical cyclones or Frontal Cyclones) - for UPSC IAS (Geography).. Before reading this article, You must read the concept of Airmass and Fronts. Temperate Cyclone. Temperate cyclones are storm systems emerging in the mid and high latitudes, away from the tropics, and They are low-pressure systems with associated. • Occluded cyclone -More removed from low center, it may be a non-frontal trough -Cyclone regeneration can occur if bent-back front is longer and stronger than normal and separates polar airmassesof differing temperature Source: Godskeet al. (1957) More Modifications and Extensions •Frontal Structure/Dynamics -Depiction of the pola Introduction. Mid-latitude or frontal cyclones are large traveling atmospheric cyclonic storms up to 2000 kilometers in diameter with centers of low atmospheric pressure. An intense mid-latitude cyclone may have a surface pressure as low as 970 millibars, compared to an average sea-level pressure of 1013 millibars
Despite of the small differences in intensity and structure of the composite cyclone between CE CTRL and CE FILT (Fig. 6a, b), there is a significant increase of AR IVT and precipitation in the. View raw image; Examples of the frontal features for (left) 8 Jul 2000, (center) 3 Jul 2001, and (right) 23 Jun 1983 events. (top) FA (shaded; °C m −1 s −1 × 10 −10) and associated precipitation [contours intervals (left) 4, (center) 2, and (right) 5 mm].(middle) Cyclonic vorticity (contour interval 1 × 10 5 s −1) and local thermal gradient (shaded; 10 5 °C m −1) Latitude Temperature Moisture Air masses Frontal activity Differential heating Mountain barriers Distribution of land and water 5. Three types based on the process by which clouds are formed. 1. Convectional Rainfall 2. Orographic Rainfall 3. Cyclonic or Frontal Rainfall 6
Tropical Cyclone Rainfall. Precipitation in tropical cyclones can be separated into either convective or stratiform regimes. Convective precipitation occurs primarily in the eyewall and rainbands, producing rains >25 mm h −1 over small areas. However, observations suggest that only 10% of the total rain area is comprised of these convective. Frontal rainfall. The British Isles are affected by a number of different air masses. When warm and cold air meet, a depression forms: When a cold polar air mass meets a warm tropical air mass. Orographic rainfall is rain that is produced from the lifting of moist air over a mountain. The moist air rises and cools, producing orographic clouds, which are the source of the rain. Most orographic rain falls upwind of the mountain range, with some also falling a short distance downwind. This process can produce any type of precipitation. Clouds and Precipitation in a Frontal Cyclone11.4.1. Water-Vapor Influx, Atmospheric Rivers, and the Warm Conveyor Belt. The extratropical cyclone is the primary mechanism by which the atmosphere exchanges cold high latitude air for warm air from the tropics in order to maintain global heat balance. The warm tropical air has high moisture.
A rare and unusually powerful surface cyclone and frontal system hit the Middle East on Thursday afternoon, delivering torrential rain, destructive winds, and sandstorms. The event is occurring over Egypt, Israel, and other surrounding countries. According to local news media, the system also led to many power outages, car accidents, road. During landfall on the southeast coast of China, tropical cyclone (TC) Fung-Wong in the year 2008 caused torrential rainfall and flooding. In order to clarify the mechanism for the rainfall, a series of numerical simulations were conducted in this study using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical model with three-nested. Below is PAGASA's latest rainfall forecast for areas affected by the tail-end of a frontal system. Tuesday evening, February 16 Light to moderate rain, with at times heavy rai Although Malawi was not struck directly, the cyclone caused heavy rainfall. The UN says more than 80,000 people have been displaced. Cyclone Idai was powerful
`Cyclonic Precipitation `Frontal Precipitation. 4) Frontal Precipitation `Frontal uplift - air can be forced upward through the movement of air masses `Air masses = a large body of air, with a set of relatively uniform temperature and moisture properties. 4) Frontal Precipitatio Frontal (Cyclonic) rainfall: This type of rainfall occurs along the zone of contact between a warm and cool air mass. When two large air masses of different temperature meet, the warmer and hence lighter air is lifted above the cooler air. The warm air then rises, cools and condenses to form rain Cyclonic . Cyclonic precipitation, also known as frontal precipitation, occurs when very warm air (usually tropical) makes contact with cool air. Nimbostratus clouds form from this contact and result in precipitation. This mechanism can occur as either a warm front, when warm air rises over cool air and creates light rain, or a cold front, when. A cyclone is a region in the atmosphere that has a large low pressure having circular wind motion. The cyclonic precipitation is caused due to the movement of moist air mass to this region by the difference in pressure. Cyclonic precipitation is two types: frontal and non-frontal precipitation. Frontal Precipitation. A frontal is known as the.
A cyclone is defined as an area of low pressure with a counter-clockwise (Northern Hemisphere) circulation of the air around it, usually inward, towards the center. This type of precipitation can also be classified into non-frontal and frontal. Non-frontal precipitation can occur in any kind of barometric depression or barometric low Frontal Uplift. Next time you're watching the weather channel and hear a phrase like, 'There's a cold front coming in,' you can expect to see some clouds and maybe even some precipitation! Here's why Orographic precipitation, rain, snow, or other precipitation produced when moist air is lifted as it moves over a mountain range. As the air rises and cools, orographic clouds form and serve as the source of the precipitation, most of which falls upwind of the mountain ridge
warm air advances into region formerly covered by cold air, weather map symbol is red line with circular teeth, warm air rides up and over cold air, frontal surface slopes very shallowly with height (about 1:200), moves forward at 15-20 mph, steady rain or drizzle, if air is cold enough, then steady snow, freezing rain and snow are most often. a frontal cyclone is ending because an occluded front is forming. bringing light and steady rain. Temperatures after frontal passage is warmer than the temperature before. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... 8th Grade Vocab Science Week 22. 23 terms. EVAN_SANDERS1204. Earth and Space Science Ch.8 Test Notes. 58 terms. pinky9100 Frontal rainfall vid October 4, 2014 In Frontal rainfall vid Front fall rainfall diagram October 9, 2014. Convectional rainfall diagram October 10, 2014 In Convectional rainfall diagram Posted in Uncategorized. Tags: Frontal rainfall diagram. Leave a Reply Cancel repl If the precipitation area between a tropical cyclone and a nearby front is merged, all the rainfall is included within the graphics.If there is separation between the tropical cyclone and precipitation along a draping frontal zone well to its north or northeast (also known as PRE rainfall), the distant PRE rainfall activity is not included in the storm total rainfall
11/5/2020 17 Types of Precipitation ° Cyclonic Precipitation Cyclonic precipitation results from lifting of air masses converging into low pressure area or cyclone due to pressure difference created by the unequal heating of earth's surface. Cyclonic precipitation may be: i. Frontal Precipitation ii frontal rainfall translation in English - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'full frontal',front',frontage',front man', examples, definition, conjugatio Draw a diagram showing:- a Convectional rainfall b Cyclonic rainfall c Relief rainfall - Social Science - Ai
For each cyclone, using a fixed‐distance radius (500 km unless stated otherwise) we identify the cyclone‐centered IMERG precipitation, 850‐hPa relative vorticity (hereafter, vorticity), and PWV from ERA‐Interim. We multiply Southern Hemisphere vorticity by −1 when we combine data from the two hemispheres Precipitation events caused by the convergence of fronts is called cyclonic or frontal precipitation. Chapter 3 Precipitation 2 using data collected during the IOP 8 frontal precipitation event (29 September 2012)
Frontal Rainfall. Stage 1. An area of warm air meets and area of cold air. Stage 2. The warm air is forced over the cold air. Stage 3. Where the air meets the warm air is cooled and water vapour condenses. Stage 4. Clouds form and precipitation occurs : Online Activitie Convectional rainfall occurs when the energy of the sun (or insolation) heats the earth's surface and causes water to evaporate changing to water vapor. This warm, moist air then rises, and as it rises, it cools
red, respectively), isobars (black) and frontal precipitation (grey shading). Bottom: Isotherms. Frontal fracture occurs in stage II of the cyclone development when cold and warm fronts become separated. The warm seclusion occurs in the mature stage of cyclone development when warm air from the warm sector is cut off by the bent-back front. Extratropical Cyclone -a cyclonic storm deriving its energy primarily from the horizontal temperature gradient that exists In the midlatitudes (a.k.a. midlatitude, baroclinic, or frontal cyclone) Variants-Polar lows and Medicanes, which typically are accompanied by upper-level troughs but develop tropical-cyclone-lik 133+3 sentence examples: 1. An exceptionally violent cyclone hit the town last night. 2. A tropical cyclone brought heavy rain to the country last week. 3. In 1974 Darwin was devastated by Cyclone Tracy. 4. The cyclone struck the village late last n
Weather: The weather experienced as a cyclone moves over an area depends upon what portion of the storm passes overhead. If the cyclone center passes to the north an area will first experience a warm front (clouds and rain followed by warming temperatures) and then a cold front (heavy rain or thunderstorms followed by colder temperatures) The cyclonic vertical vorticities within a banded and a non-banded precipitation feature were very weak. The primary source of the vertical vorticity appears to have been advected horizontally from behind the frontal zone by a strong, low-level inflow. Vortex-stretching was generally weak. Tilting terms in the vorticity budget were primarily sinks The three stages in the development of a full tropical cyclone are formative, mature, and A. cyclonic. B. cumulus. C. frontal. D. dissipation. Weegy: The three stages in the development of a full tropical cyclone are formative , mature An extended period when rainfall is well below average is known as a drought. Expert answered|Score CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The summer of 1953 was an unusually dry one in most of southern United States and parts of the midwest. The state of Ohio had one of its driest summers in several decades in 1953. A cross section of the state's weather may be seen in the statistics for Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati, these stations being located. Cyclone and water balance parameters were derived using the algorithms of Bauer and Schlüssel from 1993, where the rainfall rate is the investigated key parameter. These data sets have been validated with in-situ VOS data and compared to the output of other SSM/I algorithms, other data sets (GPCP, ISCCP) as well as model products (ECMWF, REMO)
008. Precipitation may be caused when relatively cold, dry air is forced to rise over a mass of warmer drier air lacks frontal activity, because its air masses are usually similar 042. Midlatitude cyclonic storms dominate the weather of the United States. all year. the cooler 6 months. We collect cloud and precipitation observations from A-Train and other missions, using cyclone locations obtained with the MCMS tracker (Bauer and Del Genio, 2006; Bauer et al. 2016) that indicates the latitude and longitude of the center of extratropical cyclones every 6 hours based on ERA-interim sea level pressure fields (Dee et al., 2011), and save the information for 6-hourly cyclone. The tropical cyclone activity may bring some rainfall to revive the northeast Asian monsoon, but the major contribution to the monsoon rain revival in Korea and Japan in later summer comes from the middle-latitude frontal activity. Consequently, a phase lag appears between monsoon rainfall variations in the northern and southern parts of East. OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION is caused or enhanced by one or more of the effects of mountains on the Earth's atmosphere. These effects include the upward or lateral motions of air directly caused by mountains acting as a barrier as well as the thermal effects of the mountains that cause them to be elevated heat or cold sources The precipitation associated with cyclonic and frontal storms are of the level of the large mesoscale areas that have an extensions of about 103-104 km2 (Willems, 2001). Baroclinic structures, then, generally generate rainfall events with large extent, in which it's often possible to identify cells, or clusters of cells, with high.
The mesoscale organization and structure of precipitation in a cyclonic storm have been studied using satellite, radar, airborne and ground measurements. The large mesoscale regions, which were mainly in the form of rainbands, contained within them smaller mesoscale regions (preciptation cores) which were characterized by higher rainfall rates The terms hurricane and typhoon are regionally specific names for a strong tropical cyclone.A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a non-frontal synoptic scale low-pressure system over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection (i.e. thunderstorm activity) and definite cyclonic surface wind circulation (Holland 1993).. Tropical cyclones with maximum sustained surface. This is the type of cyclone I'm talking about. You can see distinct frontal boundaries where different airmasses meet, and if you follow these boundaries far enough, they spiral into the storm's center. This particular system brought blizzard conditions and feet of snow from parts of North Carolina all the way up to Maine early in 2018
Cyclonic storms tend to be large and have a light to medium-intensity precipitation rate. Because of their large size, they tend to have a long duration. Most precipitation is the result of cyclonic activity. Orographic. Orographic precipitation results when an air mass is lifted as it encounters topographic obstacles orographic, cyclonic/frontal, convectional rainfall. What is the rainfall for a taiga? About 12-56 cm of rain. What is the weather pattern in a taiga? blizzards, rainfall, humid The storm total rainfall map below was constructed using data from the National Climatic Data Center. The rainfall that fell from Oklahoma northeastward fell along a frontal boundary that existed to the north of the dying tropical cyclone Torrential frontal rainfall occurred over Northern Taiwan on June 2, 2017. Prior to this rainfall, tropical cyclone (TC) Mora formed in the Bay of Bengal. This study investigated the triggering. A cyclone is taking shape in the North Indian Ocean region. The Bay of Bengal will see its second Severe Cyclone of the year, after Super Cyclone Amphan formed in May. It is likely to hit Tamil Nadu coast by midweek. The next three days shall see extremely heavy rain, strong winds along with highly rough sea conditions. Q
The Norwegian Cyclone Model In 1922, well before routine upper air observations began, Bjerknes and Sol-berg in Bergen, Norway, codiﬁed experience from analyzing surface weather maps over Europe into the Norwegian Cyclone Model, a conceptual picture of the evolution of an ET cyclone and associated frontal zones at groun Mature Cyclone ESS5 Prof. Jin-Yi Yu Mature Cyclones Well-developed fronts circulating about a deep low pressure center characterize a mature mid-latitude cyclone. Heavy precipitation stems from cumulus development in association with the cold front. Lighter precipitation is associated with stratus clouds of the warm front Light rain showers will continue as today`s frontal system makes its way east. A surface low off the coast of WA and OR will create for some variable winds, particularly over the coastal waters Sunday. Wind speeds are expected to be 15 knots or less through the rest of the weekend Irish Weather Online spokesman Fergal Tierney said: The reason for the persistent rainfall was an active frontal wave lying northsouth through eastern Ireland. Gulf of Mexico blamed for rain The Asian giants, India and China are riding the frontal wave in clean-coal technology that has the potential to tap enormous and otherwise unattainable. The weather types dataset used here is described in detail in Pepler et al. (), and is based on the approach used in Dowdy and Catto ().Briefly, we combine two datasets of cyclone tracks, each of which were run for 1979-2015 using 6-hourly 0.75° MSLP fields from the ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis (Dee et al. 2011).While this is an older reanalysis, which has now been superseded by the higher.